338 BC -- The beginning: Conquest of the Latin League.
279 BC -- Minimum: Losses to Pyrrhus.
212 BC --Minimum: Hannibal's Campaigns.
86 BC -- Minimum: Losses to Mithridates.
9 AD -- Maximum: Augustus' Conquest of Germany.
116 -- Maximum: Trajan's Victory over the Parthians.
269 -- Minimum: Secession of the Gallic Empire and Palmyra.
336 -- Maximum: Reunification under Constantine.
485 -- Minimum: Loss of the West to Germanic Kingdoms.
565 -- Maximum: Justinian's reconquest of the West.
623 -- Minimum: Losses to Avars and Persia.
754 -- Minimum: Losses to Arabs and Lombards.
812 -- Maximum: The Reborn Western Empire of Charlemagne.
925 -- Minimum: End of Western Empire, Losses to Bulgars and Arabs.
1040 -- Maximum: Revival of the West, Revanche of the East.
1181 -- Maximum: Expansion into Poland.
1288 -- Maximum: Reunification of the East.
1403 -- Maximum: Respite from the Turks.
1452 -- The End: Conquest by the Turks.
In 510 BC, the city of Rome overthrew its Etruscan rulers (to the North-West)
and became a republic. It rapidly grew in size and power, becoming the
leading city in central Italy and supreme commander of the League of Latin
Cities in times of war. In 340 BC the Latin cities revolted, but Rome defeated
them and they came under direct Roman rule in 338 BC. This area, the
nascent Roman Empire, is indicated in red
the above map. The stippled red area is
an independent area owing allegiance to the Roman Empire. These
conventions apply to all of the maps below also.
In 326-290 BC Rome won the struggle for control of Italy against its
main rival, the Samnites to the south-east. The Samnite allies included
the Etruscans, and the Gauls to the north-west. Almost the whole of central
and southern Italy came under Roman rule. Under threat, the Greek cities
on the "sole" of Italy called in Pyrrhus, Greek king of Epirus (across
the Adriatic from the "heel" of Italy). He beat the Roman legions and drove
them out of most of southern Italy in 279 BC. However the losses
to his own forces were enormous, whence the phrase a "Pyrrhic victory".
Pyrrhus went on to conquer Sicily from the Carthaginians, who were allied
to Rome in this war.
The Romans finally got the better of Pyrrhus in 275 BC, and by 272 BC
had secured the entirety of southern Italy. The next target of Rome's aggression
was the great maritime Empire of Carthage. The first Punic war (so called
because Carthage was originally a Punic, i.e. Phoenician, colony) of 264-241
BC ended in a Carthaginian defeat. The western Mediterranean islands of
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica were ceded to Rome. Rome acquired territories
across the Adriatic in anti-piracy campaigns in the the 220s, and at the
same time conquered the Celts in northern Italy. Meanwhile, Carthage had
rebuilt its position by conquering much of Spain, and it was here that
the second Punic war began in 218. This time it was a war for survival.
The great Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Romans in Spain and
invaded Italy over the Alps. There he inflicted defeat after defeat on
the Roman legions, the worst being at Cannae in 216 where the Romans lost
some 50 000 troops. As during the invasion of Pyrrhus, the Samnites defected,
and so did the Greek South in 212.
Despite his victories, Hannibal was unable to capture Rome itself, and
the Roman legions finally secured a victory against him in 211. Elsewhere
Roman forces were also gaining the upper hand. In 203 Hannibal evacuated
Italy, to defend Carthage against a Roman attack. There he was defeated
by the Roman general Scipio in 202, and the war was concluded with harsh
terms imposed upon Carthage. Rome acquired the whole eastern coast of Spain,
and went on to conquer most of the country by 133 BC. As usual, Rome was
at war most of the time, and everywhere its legions were eventually successful.
Macedonia was annexed in 148 BC, Greece and Carthage two years later. By
this time, the city of Rome had reached the 100 000 mark and its only rivals
were Antioch, capital of the rapidly shrinking Selucid Kingdom, and Alexandria,
capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Such was Rome's prestige that
the king of Pergamum in western Anatolia bowed to the inevitable and in
133 BC bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Other kingdoms in Anatolia put themselves
under Roman protection. Only one kingdom dared challenge Roman supremacy:
Pontus, on the southern shore of the Black Sea. From 110-100 BC, King Mithridates
(120-66 BC) more than quadrupled its territory, expanding eastward, southward
(conquering the Roman protectorates in central Anatolia), and northward
(conquering the Bosporan Kingdom on the northern shore of the Black Sea).
In 88 BC, as Italy was just emerging from the "Social War" (which compelled
Rome to extend the citizenship to all of Italy), Mithradates struck westward.
The Roman province of Asia was over-run and 60 000 Romans executed. In
86 BC southern Greece defected to Mithradates, and received a Pontic army.
Rome's strategic position in the East seemed to be falling apart.
Rome's efforts to put Mithradates back in his place were hampered by
civil strife at home between the populists lead by Marius and the aristocrats
lead by Sulla. However, the latter defeated Mithradates in 85 BC, and the
Eastern frontier was restored by 81 BC. But Mithradates had not given up,
and Sulla's successor Pompey was sent East again. By 66 BC, the Roman victory
was complete: Mithradates committed suicide, the coast from Pontus to Syria
(inclusive) was annexed to Rome, and the interior reduced to vassalage.
In the West, Pompey's rival Julius Caesar (nephew of Marius) made even
more spectacular gains during his military appointment, conquering all
of Gaul by 51 BC and even raiding Britain. By this time the republican
system was clearly breaking down as rival generals sought absolute power,
or a share in it. The civil wars of 49-30 BC ended with this absolute power
in the hands of Octavian, nephew and heir of Caesar. In 27 BC the Senate
bestowed upon him the honorary title Augustus. As the first Emperor of
Rome he was careful nevertheless to maintain the institutions of the Republic,
and the fiction of their role in government. Legally, he was merely the
the first citizen, and so this system is called the Principate.
No mere politician, Octavian finished the job begun by his predecessors
by annexing or reducing to vassalage all of the land south of the Danube
and Rhine, East of the Euphrates, and North of the Sahara. His most ambitious
project was to conquer Germany, which seemed well in hand by 9 AD.
Germany proved more trouble than it was worth when three legions (about
15 000 men) were ambushed and annihilated in the Tutoburger forest in 9
AD. The frontier was pulled back to the Rhine, but elsewhere modest expansion
continued under the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Most notably, most of Britain
was conquered (43-80). In 68, the deeply unpopular Nero, last of the Julio-Claudians,
committed suicide. Out of the ensuing civil war the commander of the eastern
armies, Flavian, emerged victorious. The end of his short-lived dynasty
in 96 was followed by almost a century of stable and capable rule by the
Emperors, so called because each adopted his most promising subordinate
as his successor. This was the time Gibbon called "the period in the history
of the world during which the condition of the human race was most happy
and prosperous". The population of Rome reflected this, reaching perhaps
500 000, the largest in the world. For the most part the adoptive Emperors
were content to maintain the territorial limits of the Empire, but the
notable exception is Trajan (98-117). He conquered the troublesome Dacians
on the north shore of the Danube (101-106), and in 114 went to war with
the Parthian Empire, Rome's rival to the east. He annexed Armenia in 114,
northern Mesopotamia in 115, and occupied southern Mesopotamia all the
way to the Persian gulf in 116.
Trajan's conquests in the east proved impossible to hold, and his successor
Hadrian (117-138) immediately pulled the frontier back to the Euphrates,
although Armenia remained a client state. The following Pax Romana
lasted until the murder of Commodus, the last adopted Emperor. The ensuing
civil war (193-97) was won by Severus, whose dynasty maintained stability
until 235. However, for an Empire made rich on conquest and plunder,
peace did not necessarily mean prosperity. The coinage was repeatedly debased
from about 170 onwards, and by the time of this map the silver content
was only a few percent. In 212 all free men in the Empire were made citizens,
an attempt to increase its tax base. With economic decline came political
instability: in the half century after 235, there were 15 Emperors, most
ruling only a few years. At the same time, Rome's enemies had become more
powerful. In the east, the Parthians had been replaced in 226 by the Sassanid
Persians, who sought to restore the glory of the Persian Empire 700 years
before. They sacked Antioch in 253 and took the Emperor Valerian prisoner
at Edessa in 260. Simultaneously, Germans raided deep into the Empire,
reaching the Mediterranean at several points. The Empire's impotence prompted
regional commanders to seize control in the worst affected areas. In the
west, Postumus founded a Gallic Empire in 260, including Spain and Britain.
In the east, the semi-independent trading city of Palmyra became the centre
for resistance. Its ruler, Odenathus beat back the Persians and even sacked
their capital Ctephiston. On his death in 267, his more ambitious widow,
Zenobia, took power, and had by 269 conquered Roman Syria, Palestine and
Zenobia was defeated and captured in 272. In the west, Spain had returned to the Empire by 270, Gaul and Britain by 275. Against the odds, the Empire had survived, losing only peripheral territories, and even gaining against the Sassanids. Stable government was restored under Diocletian (284-305). Recognizing the need for regional-based commanders, he divided the Empire in two (East and West) each under an Augustus. The legal pretences of the Principate were dropped; citizens became subject of the Emperor, who was their lord (dominus, whence the form of government is termed the Dominate). Diocletian also instituted a regular means for succession, the Tetrarchy, involving two more junior Emperors, the Caesars. This worked once only, on Diocletian's retirement. After that, predictably, the plethora of Emperors and their disinherited sons led to civil war. The eventual victor and sole Emperor from 324 to 337 was Constantine the great. He is notable for two incalculably important decisions. First, he converted to Christianity, and under his dynasty (which lasted until 363) it became the dominant religion of the Empire. Second, he founded New Rome, a Christian capital, on the site of Byzantium, in 330. A second Senate was created for Constantinople (as it soon became known), and each Senate now nominated one Consul each year. As it had been during the Republic (in which the two Consuls shared the executive power), their names were used to identify the year. Unlike Rome, Constantinople was also the seat of the Emperor when in the East; in the West, the Imperial court was in Milan, and from 405 in Ravenna. This new situation, of an Empire with two capitals (Rome and Byzantium) is indicated by the change from red to purple in the above map.
In 375, the Visigoths, fleeing the Huns who had invaded Europe from central Asia, were allowed to settle south of the Danube. Poorly treated, they revolted in 378 and destroyed the Imperial army sent against them. With Roman subjects unwilling to serve in the army, the Empire took to replacing them with German tribes, starting with the Visigoths themselves. In 395, Theodosius the great, the last Emperor of the East and West, died, dividing the Empire between his two sons. Taking advantage of the situation, the Visigoths revolted again in 395, invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410. Meanwhile, Vandals and Sueves had invaded across the Rhine, and Britain had rebelled. The Empire in the West maintained just enough strength to repel the Huns from Gaul in 451, with help from its German allies. After that it went into terminal decline, and by 476 had almost no territory outside Italy. In that year the last Western Emperor, aptly named Romulus, was deposed and replaced by Odovacer, a German, who titled himself King of Italy. Odovacer claimed to govern in the name of Emperor Zeno in the East. The East had always ben the richer half, and had survived the Germanic and Hunnic invasions almost unscathed. At first Zeno did not accept this offer, but in 480 he gave Odovacer the title of Patrician, and from 483 he allowed the Senate in Rome to nominate one of the two Consuls, as it had done under the Emperors. This curious state of affairs around 485 is indicated by the colours of the above map. Odovacer's kingdom is coloured pale red: although it was in fact the successor to the Western Roman Empire, it did not claim to be such. But it is also stippled purple because it was nominally part of a united Empire.
Zeno was never really reconciled to Odovacer's position in Italy, and
had no qualms in encouraging the Ostrogoths (who from 476 to 488 occupied
the stippled area south of the Danube in the 485 map) to Invade Italy in
488. By 493, their king Theodoric had replaced Odovacer, and again claimed
to rule in the name of the Emperor (now Anastasius I). Theodoric strengthened
and expanded his kingdom, and ruled as a Roman Emperor in all but name.
Anastasius even returned the Imperial regalia (surrendered by Odovacer
in 476) to Rome in 497. Theodoric died in 526 and the next year Justinian
the great came to the throne in Constantinople, with a mission to regain
the West for the Empire. From 533 to 540 his general Belisarius conquered
Africa from the Vandals and most of Italy from the Ostrogoths. The latter
offered Belisarius their allegiance, and he could easily have declared
himself Emperor of a reborn Western Empire. But he did not, the Ostrogoths
rallied, and the ruinous war in Italy dragged on. When Ostrogothic resistance
ceased in 562, the city of Rome was a shadow of its former self. Justinian
had already abolished the Senate there, and the office of Consul altogether.
Although it held Rome, Justinian's Empire
was ruled entirely from Byzantium (Constantinople), hence its blue colouring
in the above map. Constantinople was now as large as Rome in its
heyday, with a population of some 500 000, and again the largest city in
the world. Simultaneously with the final Italian campaign, Justinian sent
Imperial troops to help the pro-Roman Athanagild gain the throne of the
Visigothic kingdom in Spain. He was successful, and in return acknowledged
Imperial suzerainty, and ceded southern Spain to the Empire.
Justinian was barely cold in his grave (565) when his rebuilt Empire began to crumble. Fleeing the Avars (who played much the same role that the Huns had done almost 200 years earlier), the Lombards invaded Italy in 568. When a temporary equilibrium was reached by about 605, the Romans had managed to keep almost half the country, and to prevent the formation of a unified Lombard kingdom. In 575 the Visigoths repudiated Roman suzerainty, and began the process of reducing the Imperial province in Spain, which was all but complete by 623. The Balkans were repeatedly raided by Avars, and Slav settlers immigrated in their wake. Finally, taking advantage of a palace coup in Constantinople, the Sassanid King Chosroes II of Persia invaded in 603, and had conquered Mesopotamia by 610. This prompted another coup in Constantinople, which saw Heraclius, the son of the governor of Africa, installed on the throne. But the Persians continued to advance, and by 620 had conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Cilicia (south-east Anatolia) and Armenia. Most of the Balkans were occupied by the Avars. The Empire appeared so weak that the Sassanids now set their sights on nothing less than a complete conquest. Rather than wait for them, Heraclius appropriated all the wealth of Constantinople (including that of the Church), paid off the Avars, reorganized his army and in 624 set out for the East.
In a series of brilliant campaigns from 624 to 628, Heraclius ravaged the heartlands of Persia. Putting his faith (justly) in the walls of Constantinople, the Imperial navy, and the Holy Virgin, he ignored a siege of his capital in 626 by the Persians and perfidious Avars. With bravery bordering on recklessness he lead his army to victory after victory. In 628 the Sassanid aristocracy overthrew Chosroes and opened negotiations for peace. By 630 the Imperial frontier in the East had been fully restored. It seems a pity that Heraclius did not die immediately following his Triumph in 631, rather than live, as he did, for another 10 years, and see the Arabs conquer all the lands he had just recovered. Filled with the new faith of Mohammed, they burst forth from Arabia in 634 and overwhelmed the exhausted armies of the Roman and Persian Empires. Nevertheless, Heraclius is remembered as one of the great soldier-Emperors, the founder of a dynasty that lasted 100 years, the last Emperor to come to the throne from the Latin West, but the first to adopt the Greek title Basileus (rather than Imperator). His provincial home, Carthage, was the last Roman territory in Africa to fall to the Arabs, in 698. Every year they raided deep into Anatolia, and they besieged Constantinople in 674-8 and again in 717-8. Meanwhile in Italy the Lombards were, little by little, acquiring the Empire's territory. In 751 they finally captured the Imperial headquarters, Ravenna. Rome was clearly next, with no hope of reinforcements from Byzantium. Pope Zachary (who had been de facto ruler of Rome since 741) took the extraordinary step of seeking help instead from the Frankish kingdom. In 751 he approved Pepin's elevation from Major-Domo (a position which had been the real power behind the throne for a century) to King of the Franks. Pepin obliged in 754 by clearing the Lombards out of the Papal state, which however nominally remained part of the Byzantine Empire. Because of its ambiguous status it is coloured pale red with blue stipling, similarly to Odovacer's Kingdom in 485.
Zachary's successor Stephen cemented the Papal-Frankish alliance by conferring the title Patrician of the Romans upon Pepin in 754. In so doing he was usurping the role of the Emperor, but the latter was in no position to stop him. In 756 Pepin defeated the Lombard King again, and forced him to give up the last century of conquests from the Empire in northern Italy. The Emperor Constantine V demanded that the ceded territory be returned to Byzantium, but instead Pepin gave it to the Pope, creating the Papal States (Patrimonium Petri). In 772 Papal bulls ceased to bear the Emperor's name. In 774 Pepin's son and successor Charles the great (Charlemagne) conquered the Lombard Kingdom, calling himself King of the Franks and Lombards. The Papal States became a Frankish protectorate, and Charles went on to conquer almost the whole of continental Christian Western Europe. In 800, when Charles was visiting Rome, Pope Leo III took the logical step of anointing him "Emperor governing the Roman Empire", reputedly to Charlie's own surprise. At first, the Byzantine Empire ignored this claim, but, under military pressure from Charlemagne in the Adriatic and southern Italy, they recognized him as Emperor of the Franks in 812. They reserved the title Emperor of the Romans for themselves, and emphasized this point by introducing that inscription on their coins. Nevertheless, Charlemagne was now the equal of the Byzantine Emperor, ruling over a reborn Roman Empire in the West. Meanwhile, in the East, the Byzantines had stabilized their frontier with the Arabs and regained significant territory in the Balkans from the Slavs.
After Charlemagne's death in 814 the Western Empire began a slow process
of disintegration. By 888 it was reduced to northern and central
Italy, and after 924 its rulers ceased to pretend to be Emperors, and instead
called themselves Kings of Italy. As the most direct successor to the Western
Empire, this Kingdom is indicated above in pale red.
Meanwhile, from 812 much of the Balkans had come under the rule of the
Bulgars, relatives of the Huns. They reached their peak under the Khan
Symeon (893-927), who was crowned Emperor of the Bulgars by the Patriarch
of Constantinople in 913. Despite failing to capture Constantinople in
926, he then ludicrously added "and the Romans" to his title. Simultaneously,
the Byzantines lost territory in a renewed Arab advance, this time a maritime
one. Crete was lost in 823, Cyprus in 826, Sicily from 827-902, and Sardinia
as a consequence of the loss of Sicily. But on the Italian mainland, Byzantine
power was greater than it had been for two centuries, as they alone were
able effectively to oppose the Moslem pirates.
The eighty years from 960 to 1040 saw a remarkable recovery in the fortunes
of the Roman Empires. In the West most of the lands of Charlemagne's Empire
were reunited, and this time the Empire proved far longer lasting. In 952
Otto I, King of Germany, had taken the Kingdom of Italy by force. In 962,
the Pope crowned him Emperor in Rome, reviving the Western Empire. The
connection between Italy and Germany was made secure by the addition of
the Kingdom of Burgundy (south-east Gaul) in 1033. Meanwhile the Eastern
Empire regained territory it had lost up to four centuries before. From
960 to 976, Nicephorus II Phocas, and John I Tzimisces, first as generals
and then as Emperors, conquered Crete, Cyprus, Cilicia, much of Syria and
Armenia. Most of the small states to the east, Christian and Moslem, became
Byzantine protectorates. In Europe, the Bulgarian Empire was defeated in
971 and its eastern half annexed to Byzantium. In 976, John Tzimisces died,
and the Bulgars badly mauled the army of Basil II (976-1025) on his first
campaign. By 986 their Empire was almost as large as it had been under
Symeon 60 years before. Basil bided his time, and prepared his revenge.
In almost continuous campaigning from 1000 to 1018, he utterly destroyed
the Bulgar state, and annexed it, well earning his epithet "the Bulgar-slayer".
Serbia was annexed and Croatia submitted again. Venice, however, was now
fully independent. Basil's successors, the last of the Macedonian dynasty
(867-1056), were weak rulers, but the Empire continued to expand despite
them. Edessa, on the far side of the Euphrates, was taken in 1032 and in
1038 the conquest of Sicily was begun.
Tougher than expected Arab resistance, and civil strife at home caused
the abortion of the Sicilian expedition by 1042. Worse was to come. From
1042 to 1068 a succession of weak rulers ran down the army. To save money,
active units on the eastern border were disbanded, while inactive units
closer to Constantinople (and hence more of a threat politically) were
maintained. In 1071, the last Byzantine city in Italy fell to Norman adventurers
(who had been active there for a generation), and a far greater catastrophe
occurred on the eastern frontier. A huge Byzantine army led by Emperor
Romanus Diogenes (1068-1071), but composed largely of mercenaries, was
routed by the Seljuk Turks at Manzikert in Armenia. Over the next two decades,
Turks occupied the whole of Anatolia; the Empire could not field an army
to stop them. In desperation, Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) asked the
Pope in 1095 to help raise an army from Western Christendom. The result
was far beyond his expectation: in 1097 the army of the First Crusade crossed
from Constantinople to Anatolia. By 1098 it had fought its way to Syria
and Edessa. The Byzantine army accompanying it occupied as much of Anatolia
as it could, and the new Crusader states on Roman territory (as it had
been a generation before) promised to recognize the Emperor as their overlord.
Alexius' son John II (1118-1143) made further gains in Anatolia. His grandson
Manuel I (1143-1180) forced the Crusaders to keep their word (as the above
map reflects) in 1158, and re-established the Empire's position of dominance
in the Balkans in 1159. The Western Roman Empire gained Sardinia in 1046,
but lost the Duchy of Spoleto (central Italy) in 1144. It also expanded
eastwards into Poland, making Silesia a dependency in 1163 and annexing
Pomerania in 1181.
After the death of Manuel Comnenus, the Eastern Empire went into another
rapid decline. From 1181 to 1187, Croatia was lost to the Hungarians, and
Serbia and Bulgaria gained independence. The Crusaders ceased to recognize
the Emperor's suzerainty and in 1190 captured Cyprus. Relations with the
West deteriorated, and civil wars broke out. In 1203, Alexius IV Angelus,
a pretender to the throne, promised great riches to the army of the fourth
Crusade if they would help him gain Constantinople and the throne. They
did, but as Emperor he found the treasury empty. The Crusaders deposed
him and in 1204 placed one of their own on the throne, bringing into being
the Latin Empire in Constantinople. The Crusaders and Venice (which supplied
their transport) managed to seize the whole coast from Constantinople to
southern Greece, the Aegean islands, and the opposite coast in north-east
Anatolia. The remaining Byzantine territory split into states contending
for the mantle of the fallen Empire: the Empire of Nicaea in western Anatolia,
the Empire of Trebizond in northern Anatolia, and the Despotate of Epirus
on the Adriatic. The first of these was ultimately successful, as Emperor
Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured Constantinople from the decrepit Latin
Empire in 1262. Much of Bulgaria and Serbia was regained, but a few Crusader
states lingered on in southern Greece. In 1282 the Emperor of Trebizond
agreed to call himself Despot instead, accepting the primacy of the Emperor
in Constantinople. The two remaining independent Byzantine rulers in Greece
also submitted: the Despot of Epirus in 1284 and the Sebastocrator of Thessalay
in 1288. Meanwhile, the Western Empire was losing its hold over Italy.
As early as 1183 the Lombard cities in northern Italy were effectively
independent. The Roman Empire in the West ceased to exist in 1282, when
the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg recognized the Popes' declaration of independence
of the Papal States in 1278. Ruled from Rome, the Papal States are indicated
in pale red in the above map.
Despite all the disasters that had befallen the Roman Empire in the
East, its currency had always been the gold standard in Christendom. But
debasement of the gold content of the hyperperon to 7 parts in 12 by 1282
led the Venetians to mint their own pure gold coin, the ducate. It rapidly
replaced the hyperperon, a symptom of the fact that the Empire was losing
its trade profits to the Italian cities. With a shrinking treasury, the
Empire was unable to prevent the advance of the enemies that surrounded
it: Turks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Venetians and other Westerners. Civil war
again became endemic, and then the black death struck in 1347. By this
time the Empire had lost virtually all its Anatolian lands to various Turkish
emirates. One of these, the Ottomans, gained a foothold in Europe in 1354,
as supporters of one faction in a civil war. By 1402 the Ottomans had conquered
almost all of Anatolia, and much of the Balkans. The Roman Empire was reduced
to Constantinople and the Morea (the southernmost part of Greece). The
future of the Empire seemed likely to be numbered in months, not years.
Then suddenly it had a respite: the last great nomad warrior, Timur the
lame, smashed the Ottoman army at Ankara. The Ottoman Sultanate fell into
warring factions, with Europe under the control of Suleyman. He restored
a few territories to the Roman Empire in order to gain the co-operation
of Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus in his (unsuccessful) bid to become sole
Sultan. In the West, the Papal States relaxed their grip on most of their
Italian territories, during the exile of the Pope in Avignon in France
from 1309 to 1379.
Although Timur died in 1404, the Ottoman Empire (under one Sultan again from 1413) took a generation to recover its territories in Europe, and much longer in Anatolia. Although an Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1422 failed, they took Thessalonica (in northern Greece) in 1430. The Despotate of the Morea actually expanded, at the expense of the remaining petty Latin principalities, and the region saw a late flowering of Byzantine culture and philosophy. In 1415 the Byzantines built the hexamilion, the six-mile wall, across the isthmus connecting Morea to the rest of Greece. In 1444 the Despot of Morea invaded Ottoman territory in conjunction with a last crusade from the West. In a close-fought battle at Varna the crusaders were defeated, and the Ottomans chased the Byzantines back over the hexamilion. In 1449 Constantine XI Palaeologus, came to the throne. The last Emperor in Rome (before Charlemagne) was named after its legendary founder, Romulus, and the new Emperor in Constantinople was not only named after its founder, Constantine, but also had a mother of the same name, Helena. Many thought this augured the end of the Empire, and they were soon vindicated. A new Ottoman Sultan, Mehmet, came to the throne in 1451, and quickly made his plans apparent by building a huge fortress in 1452, next to Constantinople, on what was nominally Roman territory.
The final siege of Constantinople was short, lasting from the 5th of April to the 29th of May 1453. Using Hungarian- designed cannon of unprecedented size, the Sultan blasted away at the walls built by Theodosius the great more than a millennium before. Constantinople was defended by just 8 000 men, mostly Byzantines but with a sizeable contingent from Genoa. The Sultan's army numbered perhaps ten times as many. Defeat was inevitable. The injured Genoese captain Giovanni Longo escaped with his men by ship just in time. Constantine went down with his city. Donning his war gear, he plunged into the final fray, never to be seen again. Thus the Roman Empire finally ended after 1790 years.
The few remnant Byzantine states were mopped up by the Turks some years later: Morea in 1460 and Trebizond in 1461. But Byzantine culture continued in the southern Balkans and on the coasts of Anatolia, where Greek-speakers continued to all themselves Romans (Rhomaioi) well into the 20th century. The Patriarch continues to reside in Constantinople, a figurehead for Orthodox Christians in eastern Europe, the Near East, and all over the world. Nor is the Byzantine legacy restricted to eastern cultures: the exodus of the Byzantine elite from the Morea to Italy did much to start the Renaissance of Classical learning there. The Morea and the lands to its north was the part of Greece that first regained independence from the Ottomans, in 1830. The modern frontiers of Greece were not reached until after the First World War, in which the Ottoman Empire came to an end . But Constantinople, now Istanbul, is still firmly in the hands of the Turkish state. Without it, modern Greece is inevitably to be seen as the successor to ancient Greece, not (as it is culturally) to the last Roman Empire.
Meanwhile, in the West, the Papacy continued to have trouble keeping control ot its territory in Italy. By the mid 17th century, however, it had regained direct control of the whole of the Patrimonium Petri as shown in the map for 1288. Recall that this territory was born as the Exarchate of Ravenna in the early 7th century, the largest surviving block of Roman territory in Italy following the Lombard invasions. Conquered by the Lombards in the mid 8th century, it was almost immediately restored and donated to the Pope by Pepin, King of the Franks. It continued to be ruled by the Papacy, as part of a larger state until 1282, and then independently, until 1861-70 when it was annexed by the renascent Kingdom of Italy. This Kingdom was the first unified Italian state since the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, more than 1300 years before. For almost all of the intervening time, the band of territory linking Ravenna to Rome was a powerful factor against Italian unity, separating Lombardy and Tuscany in the north from what became the Kingdom of Naples in the south. The longevity and influence of this essentially artificial territory are almost as remarkable as those of the Roman Empire that gave birth to it.