||Stilicho withdraws troops from Britain to face a threat
by the Goths.
||Gaul is invaded by Germans. Britain revolts and nominates
III as Emperor. He moves to Gaul with many of the remaining troops in
||Britain is raided by the Saxons. The Britons appeal to
Honorius, the legitimate Emperor, for aid. They
are told to look after themselves.
||The Britons arm themselves and overthrow
||Britain is raided heavily by Picts and Scots, and probably
||The Britons appeal to Aetius, Roman commander in Gaul, but
get no aid.
||St. Germanus visits Britain and leads local troops to a
Pictish and Saxon raiders.
||A time of peace and prosperity but political instability.
||Vortigern comes to power as the head of a council of Britain.
||In response to the threat of renewed Pictish raiding, Angle
are invited to settle in the East of Britain as federates.
||A plague devastates Britain.
||Vortigern invites Jute/Frisian mercenaries under Hengest, and
them in Thanet, to use in punitive raids against the Picts, and to
counter the threats of British rivals and Imperial invasion.
||Civil strife between Vortigern's party and Ambrosius
of pro-Imperial party).
||Hengest's mercenaries are reinforced from Saxony and Anglia.
marries Hengest's daughter and cedes Kent to Hengest. Hengest's son
leads a raid against the Picts and founds an English settlement in
of the Firth of Forth.
||Vortigern's son Vortimer seizes power and repudiates his
with Hengest. He invades Kent but is defeated by Hengest at Crayford
driven back to London.
||Vortimer and Hengest fight indecisively in Kent. Their
Cattegirn and Horsa are killed.
||Vortimer invades Kent again and this time defeats Hengest,
||Vortimer besieges Thanet, and finally retakes it, forcing
withdraw to the continent.
||In response to an Imperial request, Riothamus (?=Vortimer?),
of the Britons, leads his army to Gaul to fight the Visigoths. He is
by the Imperial prefect in Gaul.
||The Britons in Gaul are routed before Imperial troops arrive.
||Vortigern takes power again, and invites Hengest and his army
||In a meeting with the council of Britain, Hengest's men
300 British elders by surprise, and ransom Vortigern for Essex and
Vortigern hands over power to Ambrosius Aurelianus, son of the above
||Perhaps in response to resistance to his claim on Essex and
Hengest leads a great raid against Britain, destroying many towns. The
Angles subsequently revolt also. Many Britons migrate to Brittany
||Ambrosius Aurelianus rallies the Britons and defeats the
then until 518, the fortunes of war fluctuate.
||Aelle lands in Sussex with 3 keels (ships). He conquers
the next 14 years.
||The Angle king Icel migrates from Angeln (Denmark/Germany) to
||Cerdic lands in Hampshire with 5 keels. He establishes the
of the Gewissae over the next 13 years.
||Arthur is Dux Bellorum (battle-leader) of the Britons. He is
over the English in Lindsey, the Picts (presumably) in Caledonia and
Irish (presumably) in Caerleon.
||Arthur assumes Ambrosius' power as high king.
||Bretons accept nominal Frankish suzerainty.
||Battle of Badon (Bath) in which Arthur defeats the English.
the English leader) and Cerdic die. Britain is partitioned by treaty
the British and the English. Gildas is born.
||Many Saxons migrate back to Germany.
|Theodoric, king of the Franks,
claims to rule Britain. Britons, perhaps led by Arthur, occupy Frankish
territory in the west, and Angles undertake a punitive raid against the
Varni, Frankish allies in the east.
||Arthur dies in civil war probably against Medraut.
||Gildas writes "The ruin of Britain".
||Ida becomes king of Bernicia and begins a policy of expansion.
||Cynric, grandson of Cerdic, also breaks the peace of Badon.
||British engage in many civil wars.
||The Mercians capture the Northern midlands from the British.
Saxons reclaim Essex.
||Ceawlin, son of Cynric, captures the Southern midlands, from
to the Chilterns, from the British.
||Urien of Rheged leads the Northern British heroic age in
the Bernicians, but is assassinated by a rival on the brink of victory.
||York is captured by the Deirans.
||Catterick (in the Eastern Pennines) is captured by the
||The mounted host of the Northern British is annihilated in
to recover Catterick. The Northumbrians secure all of the lands east of